2015年度東京大学(後期)総合科目Ⅰ解答速報・講評


【解答例】
第1問
(1)
確かに、人間に関しては、自尊心、威厳、達成感から生まれる実体のない精神的な強化の方が、物質的な報酬よりもはるかにやる気を起こさせうる。同様に、動物にとって自分が何らかの目的を持っていると感じることが重要で、社会的動物にとって目的が他者との意味ある交流を伴い、クラッカーをもらうことよりも協力により得られる自尊心が重要だということがありうるのだろうか。

(2)
In my opinion, both animals in captivity and wild animals behave based on their own interests. Tigers in captivity, for example, gain the control over the world around them by cooperating with zookeepers. The control is definitely what the tigers want. In case of dolphins in the wild, they get many small fish by seemingly cooperating fishermen’s net-casting. Although fishermen can get more food by “cooperation” of dolphins, I think that dolphins behave like this only because they want to get their own food but because they want to cooperate with human beings.(93語)

(3)
In my opinion, the text as a whole doesn’t coherently answer the question. The author answers the question “How would an animal want to cooperate with a human?” rather than “Why would an animal want to cooperate with a human?” In case of animals in captivity, the author gives examples of cheetahs, tigers and elephants etc. explaining how animals cooperate with human beings. I feel, however, the author doesn’t give any concrete reasons for the behavior. Also with animals in the wild, the author gives the example of cooperation between dolphins and human beings but doesn’t give any solid reasons.(100語)

第2問
(1)
私はその学校が統計をごまかしているということを言いたいわけではないが、それでも、その学校が言っていることを鵜呑みにしてはならない。なぜか。MBAを取得しようとする人々は、そうではない人々とは異なるからだ。両者の収入の差は、MBAの学位そのものとは全く関係のない多くの理由によるものだ。

(2)
The swimmer’s body illusion discussed in this text means that we tend to think that swimmers get well-built streamlined bodies through hard training. In fact, they have perfect bodies first and hence they become swimmers. The author argues that the success is brought by inborn talents and quality. The swimmer’s body illusion exists in many other fields such as cosmetics and education. If we are influence by this kind of illusion and want to change ourselves, we may spend our time and money in vain. We should be careful not to be deceived by this illusion. (96語)

(3)
The author argues that the success is brought by people’s inborn talents and qualities. This may be true in some cases, but not in all the cases. Some people achieve success by persistent effort. For example, Mr. Kohji Uehara, a professional baseball player, was not a good player when he was a high school student but became one of the best baseball players through hard training. This example shows that we can change ourselves by the effort. If the author’s opinion is true, no one wants to make an effort and improves themselves anymore.(94語)

【講評】(難易度は平年の東大対比)
Ⅰは標準的な長文読解問題。ただし、(3)はやや難。筆者が自ら提示した問に答えているかどうかについて意見を書く問題であるが、普段から論理的に、ときに批判的に文章を読む癖がついていないと難しいであろう。

Ⅱは標準的な長文読解問題。(3)はやや難。筆者の主張に対して考えられる反論を述べる問題であるが、ここでも論理力が求められている。


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